Parts Of A Roof

The Top 25 Parts Of A Roof

Your home’s foundation and roof are arguably the most important structure of the home. If you are a homeowner, you know how important a sturdy and reliable roof is to the safety and integrity of your property.

But have you ever thought about what are the parts of a roof? A roof is actually made up of several distinct parts, each of which plays a critical role in protecting your building from the elements and keeping it structurally sound. 

Today, we’ll take a closer look at the parts of a roof and what they do, so you can take a better understanding of how your roof functions and how to keep it in good condition for years to come. 

1. Ridge Board

That’s the highest part of the roof, where two opposite planes meet. It provides central support for the roof structure and helps to distribute the total weight. 

part of the roof

2. Ridge Cap

A ridge cap is a protective cover placed over the ridge board to prevent water from seeping into it. It’s usually made of the same material as the roof covering, such as shingles or tiles. 

3. Hip Rafter

Hip rafters are diagonal support beams that connect the ridge board to the corner of the roof. They help to distribute weight and support the roof structure at the corner. 

4. Hip Jack 

A hip jack is a shorter diagonal beam that connects the hip rafter to the wall. It provides additional support at the corners and helps distribute weight evenly.

5. Valley Rafter 

Valley rafters are diagonal support beams that connect two roof planes that meet at a valley. They help to distribute weight and provide support at the junction of two roof planes. 

6. Valley Jack

A valley jack is a shorter diagonal beam that connects the valley rafter to the wall. It provides additional support at the valley and helps distribute weight evenly.

7. Eaves

Eave is the last portion of the roof and the overhanging edges of the roof that extend beyond the walls of the building. They help to protect the walls from water damage and provide shade for the house. 

Roof Eaves

8. Fascia 

It is a horizontal board that runs along with the eaves and supports the roof’s gutter system. Fascia also provides a finished look at the edge of the roof.

9. Soffit

The soffit is the underside of the roof eave parts and fascia. It’s usually made of vented material to allow air to circulate in the attic and prevent moisture buildup. Soffit also insulates the home and gives a curb appeal.  

10. Gable

A gable is the triangular portion of a wall that forms the end of a pitched roof. It’s typically framed with diagonal bracing to provide additional support. 

11. Gable End

The Gable end is the end section of the wall underneath the end of a pitched roof. 

12. Rafters

Rafters are the sloping beams that support the roof’s structure. They run from the ridge board to the eaves and help distribute weight evenly.

13. Collar Ties

Collar ties are horizontal beams that connect opposing rafters near the ridge board. They help to prevent the roof from spreading apart and provide additional support.

14. Purlins

Purlins are horizontal beams that support the roof covering. They’re often used in metal roofing systems to provide additional support and prevent sagging.

15. Roof Deck

The roof deck is the surface to which the roof covering is attached. It’s usually made of plywood, OSB, or metal and provides a sturdy base for the roof structure.

16. Underlayment 

The underlayment is a layer of material that’s placed on top of the roof deck and under the roof covering. It helps to prevent water from seeping in and protects the roof deck from damage.

17. Roof Covering

The roof covering is the material that covers the roof deck and provides protection from the elements. It can be made of various materials such as shingles, tiles, metal panels, or membrane roofing.

18. Attic

The attic is the space under the roof. It protects the roofing system from excessive heat in summer and warm moist air in the winter. 

19. Saddle

The saddle of a roof is a small ridge-shaped structure that is built to divert water around a chimney or another obstruction on a sloped roof. 

It is typically installed on the ridge side of the obstruction and slopes downward to the main roof surface, allowing rainwater to flow off the roof without accumulating around the chimney or other obstructions.

20. Flashing

Flashing is a material used to prevent water from seeping into the building through the roof. It’s typically made of metal and placed at the junction of different roof surfaces or around roof penetrations such as chimneys or vents.

21. Gutters

Gutters are channels that are attached to the fascia and collect rainwater from the roof. They direct water away from the house to prevent water damage. 

22. Downspouts

Downspouts are the pipes that connect to the gutter and run vertically from the roof to the ground. It protects the side of the house from water damage. It is generally made of galvanized steel, plastic, or other water-resistant materials. 

23. Roof Vents

Roof vents are installed on the roof to provide proper ventilation to the attic. The vents allow air to circulate through the attic space, preventing moisture build-up, and regulating the temperature inside the home. 

They come in different types like ridge vents, gable vents, and soffit vents. 

24. Dormer

A dormer is a structural roof element that protrudes from a sloping roof. It provides additional headroom or living space in the attic or loft, particularly in rooms where the ceiling might be too low. 

25. Skylight

A skylight is a window installed on the roof, allowing natural light to enter a room or space below. Skylights come in different sizes and shapes, and they can be fixed, vented, or operated by a motorized mechanism. 

They help to reduce energy consumption by bringing natural light into the house, reducing the need for artificial lighting during the day. They can also help in providing ventilation when open. 


Understanding the different parts of the roof is essential for every homeowner. Each roof structure part plays a vital role in protecting your home from the elements and ensuring the longevity of your roof. 

Now you know all the parts of a roof, though there’s more to learn about the parts of a roof structure, it will help you when getting a roof replacement or describing the problem to a professional. 

If you need help with any of your roof elements, you can contact us for a professional contractor. 


What is the most important part of a roof?

Roof decking is considered the most important part of the roof. 

What is the top part of the roof called?

The top part of the roof is called the “Ridge”. It’s the horizontal line that runs to the length of the roof where the two roof planes meet. 

What is a roof gutter called?

A roof gutter is generally known as an eave, rain gutter, or simply a gutter.

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